Location:Home / Journals / Article Detail

The Educational Review, USA


PDF Download

Integrating Technology that Uses Modified SAMR Model as a Pedagogical Framework in Evaluating Learning Performance of Undergraduates

R. Sudha Nair1,*, Tay Choo Chuan2

1Centre of Liberal Arts and Languages, INTI International University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Technical Malaysia Melaka (UTEM), Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: R. Sudha Nair

Date: October 18,2021 Hits: 494


This is a case study on the integration of technology using a modified SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition) model as a pedagogical framework in teaching and learning in a private college in Melaka, Malaysia on a chosen topic in Business Communication. The study was conducted in Summer, 2019. This is a quantitative study with two groups which are control and experimental groups. The control group had gone through the traditional teaching method while the experimental group learned through technology. The model was incorporated with Bloom’s Taxonomy and TPACK for credibility and reliability. All four stages of the SAMR Model were investigated for the presence of content, pedagogy, and technology. The study identified that there was the presence of content, pedagogy, and technology in the stages of augmentation, modification, and redefinition while pedagogy and content were absent in the substitution level. However, the integration of technology using the proposed pedagogical framework improved student performance in the last three stages of augmentation, modification, and redefinition with positive results. Overall, the study has evidence that the modified SAMR Model had enhanced and improved student performance. It is hoped that the outcome of this research provides valuable insight and guidance to those who want to integrate technology into the teaching and learning process.


Ahern, L., Feller, J., and Nagle, T. (2016). Social media as a support for learning in universities: an empirical study of Facebook Groups. Journal of Decision systems, 25(sup1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/12460125.2016.1187421.

Aiyegbayo, O. (2015). How and why academics do and do not use i P ads for academic teaching? British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(6), 13241332. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12202.

Alfelaij, B. (2016). Why integrating technology has been unsuccessful in Kuwait? An exploratory study. E-Learning and Digital Media, 13(3-4), 126-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753016672901.

Alhazmi, A. K. and Rahman, A. A. (2012, October). Why LMS failed to support student learning in higher education institutions. In E-Learning, E-Management and E-Services (IS3e), 2012 IEEE Symposium on (pp. 1-5). IEEE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ IS3e.2012.6414943.

Aloraini, S. (2012). The impact of using multimedia on students’ academic achievement in the College of Education at King Saud University. Journal of King Saud University-Languages and Translation, 24(2), 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jksult.2012.05.002.

Ainin, S., Naqshbandi, M. M., Moghavvemi, S., and Jaafar, N. I. (2015). Facebook usage, socialization and academic performance. Computers & Education, 83, 64-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.12.018.

Bauman, C. W., McGraw, A. P., Bartels, D. M., and Warren, C. (2014). Revisiting external validity: Concerns about trolley problems and other sacrificial dilemmas in moral psychology. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(9), 536-554. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12131.

Blueprint. (2015). M. E. Blueprint 2015-2025 (Higher Education) Executive Summary. Ministry of Education.

Blueprint, M. S. E. Blueprint 2015-2018. (2015). Malaysian Global Innovation & Creativity (MaGIC, 2015), Unleashing the power of social entrepreneurship.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. ISBN-13:9780131367395.

Cuban, L., Kirkpatrick, H., and Peck, C. (2001). High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 813-834. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004813.

Drever, J. (1981). The penguin dictionary of psychology. Middlesex: Penguin Books Ltd.

Dudeney, G. (2010). The Internet and the language classroom. Ernst Klett.

Ghavifekr, S., Afshari, M., and Amla Salleh. (2012). Management strategies for E-Learning system as the core component of systemic change: A qualitative analysis. Life Science Journal, 9(3), 2190-2196.

Ghavifekr, S., Kunjappan, T., Ramasamy, L., and Anthony, A. (2016). Teaching and Learning with ICT Tools: Issues and Challenges from Teachers’ Perceptions. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(2), 38-57.

Ghavifekr, S., and Rosdy, W. A. W. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology: Effectiveness of ICT integration in schools. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 1(2), 175-191. DOI:10.21890/IJRES.23596.

Grabe, M. and Grabe, C. (2007). Integrating technology for meaningful learning (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. DOI: 10.12691/jcsa-5-1-5.

Guo, Z., Li, Y., and Stevens, K. J. (2012). Analysing students’ technology use motivations: An interpretive structural modelling approach. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 30, 199-224. DOI: 10.17705/1CAIS.03014.

Hamilton, E. R., Rosenberg, J. M., and Akcaoglu, M. (2016). The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) Model: A Critical Review and Suggestions for its Use. TechTrends, 60(5), 433-441. DOI: 10.1007/s11528-016-0091-y.

Harrell, S. and Bynum, Y. (2018). Factors Affecting Technology Integration in the Classroom. Alabama Journal of Educational Leadership, 5, 12-18. Corpus ID: 150051118.

Hilton, J. T. (2016). A case study of the application of SAMR and TPACK for reflection on technology integration into two social studies classrooms. Social Studies, 107(2), 68-73. Doi: 10.1080/00377996.2015.1124376. 

Hogan, L. (2010). The Maine Learning Technology Initiative: Professional development at the state, local school district, and classroom levels. Available at www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/NES_Publications/2010_09Hogan.pdf.

Hollebrands, K. (2020). How can Teachers Use Technology in the Classroom: Ask the Expert Series. https://ced.ncsu/news.

Kabilan, M., Ahmad, N., and Abidin, M. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 179-187. DOI: 10.1016/J.IHEDUC.2010.07.003.

Keating, J. (2011). The Malaysian qualifications framework. An institutional response to intrinsic weaknesses. Journal of Education and Work, 24(3-4), 393-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2011.584699.

Kihoza, P., Zlotnikova, I., Bada, J., and Kalegele, K. (2016). Classroom ICT integration in Tanzania: Opportunities and challenges from the perspectives of TPACK and SAMR models. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 12(1), 107. Corpus ID: 102341234.

Kurt, S. (2018). “TPACK: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework,” in Educational Technology, May 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/technological-pedagogical-content-knowledge-tpack-framework/.

Linderoth, J, (2013, October 17). Open letter to Dr. Ruben Puentedura [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://spelvetenskap.blogspot. com/2013/10/open-letter-to-dr-ruben-puentedura.htm.

Linderoth, J. (2013). Spelvetenskapliga betraktelser: Open letter to Dr. Ruben Puentedura. [online] Spelveten. skap.blogspot.ca. Available at: http://spelvetenskap.blogspot.ca/2013/10/open-letter-to-drruben-puentedura.html.

Lowerison, G., Sclater, J., Schmid, R. F., and Abrami, P. C. (2006). Student perceived effectiveness of computer technology us in post-secondary classrooms. Computer and Education, 47, 465-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2004.10.014.

Microsoft Asia News Center. (2018, May 23) Retrieved from: https://news.microsoft.com/apac/2018/05/23/meaningful- tech-integration-for-better-learning-with-samr.

Muthee, J. M. and Murungi, C. G. (2018). Relationship Among Intelligence, Achievement Motivation, Type of School, and Academic Performance of Kenyan Urban Primary School Pupils. In Encyclopaedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 1540-1547). DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3528.

Nkonki, V. and Ntlabathi, S. (2016, June). Teaching and Learning Innovations on Blackboard: What form and function? In ternational Conference on e-Learning (p. 120). Academic Conferences International Limited. Corpus ID: 34510683.

Ping, N. S. and Maniam, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of Facebook Group Discussions on Writing Performance: A Study in Matri-culation College. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(1), 30-37. DOI:10.11591/ijere.v4i1.4489.

Price, P. C., Chiang, I. C. A., and Jhangiani, R. (2015). Research methods in psychology. BCcampus, BC Open Textbook Project.

Puentedura, R. (2006). Transformation, Technology, and Education. Presentation given August 18, 2006 as part of the Strengthening Your District Through Technology workshops, Maine, US. Retrieved from http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/part1.html.

Puentedura, R. R. (2013). The SAMR model: Background and exemplars. Presentation slides. Retrieved on 28 March, 2015 from http://wiki.milaca.k12.mn.us/groups/samr/wiki/welcome/attachments/9dbda/ SAMR%20Geography%20Examples.pdf.

Robinson, K. (2016). The Effect of Technology Integration on High School Students’ literacy Achievement. Teaching English with Technology, 16(3), 3-16. ISSN: EISSN-1642-1027.

Schlichter, A. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 on Education: Insights from Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Sobaih, A. E. E., Moustafa, M. A., Ghandforoush, P., and Khan, M. (2016). To use or not to use? Social media in higher education in developing countries. Computers in Human Behaviour, 58, 296-305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.002.

S. Eghdam, A., Hamidi, U., Bartfai, A., and Koch, S. (2018). Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study. PloS one, 13(1), e0191878. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191878.2018.

Singer, J. (1999). Opinion gap: Measuring Public School Academic Performance ACS-VT 2000.

Shariman, T. P. N. T., Razak, N. A., and Noor, N. F. M. (2012). Digital literacy competence for academic needs: An analysis of Ma-laysian students in three universities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69(1), 1489-1496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.090.

Swayne, J. M. (2017). Staying Connected: Measuring the Impact of Technology Integration on Student Engagement and Achievement at the Middle Level.

Tuckman, H. P. (1975). Teacher effectiveness and student performance. The Journal of Economic Education, 7(1), 34-39.

Utomo, H. P., Bon, A. T., and Hendayun, M. (2018, July). The integrated academic nformation system support for education 3.0 in higher education institution: Lecturer perspective. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1049, No. 1, p. 012102). IOP Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1049/1/012102.

Yunus, M. M., Salehi, H., and Chenzi, C. (2012). Integrating social networking tools into ESL writing classroom: Strengths and weaknesses. English language teaching, 5(8), 42-48. DOI: 10.5539/elt.v5n8p42.

Wachira, P. and Keengwe, J. (2011). Technology integration barriers: Urban school mathematics teacher’s perspectives. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(1), 17-25. DOI: 10.1007/s10956-010-9230-y.

Winter, E., Costello, A., O’Brien, M., and Hickey, G. (2021).  Teachers’ use of technology and the impact of Covid-19.  Irish Educational Studies, 1-12.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2021.1916559. 

Wood, R. and Bandura, A. (1989).  Social cognitive theory of organizational management.  Academy of management Review, 14(3), 361-384.  DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1989.4279067. 

Wu, W. H., Wu, Y. C. J., Chen, C. Y., Kao, H. Y., Lin, C. H., and Huang, S. H. (2012).  Review of trends from mobile learning studies: A meta-analysis.  Computers & Education, 59(2), 817-827.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.016.

Full-Text HTML

Integrating Technology that Uses Modified SAMR Model as a Pedagogical Framework in Evaluating Learning Performance of Undergraduates

How to cite this paper: R. Sudha Nair, Tay Choo Chuan. (2021). Integrating Technology that Uses Modified SAMR Model as a Pedagogical Framework in Evaluating Learning Performance of Undergraduates. The Educational Review, USA5(10), 373-384.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2021.10.001