Location:Home / Journals / Article Detail

Engineering Advances

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ea.2022.12.001

PDF Download

Determination of the Metals Contents of Essential Oil from Lemongrass

Samson Onoriode Okpo1, Ifeanyichukwu Edeh2,*

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Delta State University of Science & Technology, Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh

Date: August 3,2022 Hits: 177

Abstract

Lemongrass is reportedly been used in some parts of Nigeria for the treatment of fever, convulsion in children, throat inflammations, stomach upset, skin diseases, and ears/eyes infections, pepper soup ingredient, curries, and in preparation of local drinks. Based on this, there is need to assess the metal contents as excess consumption of lemongrass oil or prolong exposure to them could be injurious to health. In this work, lemongrass oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatuses and its metal contents analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained were compared with those from similar works from literature and acceptable level in medicinal plants by WHO. The results showed presence of the following metallic elements and their respective concentrations: magnesium (14.159 mg/kg), lead (1.379 mg/kg), zinc (0.844mg/kg), mercury (0.728 mg/kg), chromium (0.530 mg/kg), copper (0.267 mg/kg), iron (0.167 mg/kg), cadmium (0.080 mg/kg), manganese (0.009) and arsenic (no trace). The metal composition is appreciable and tolerable as indicated by the WHO standards except for mercury. Therefore, the concentration of the metals should be constantly monitored to ensure safety of those that consume or apply the lemongrass, and excessive consumption should be avoided in order to prevent associated health challenges such as neuropathy, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer.

References

[1] New Directions Aromatics. (2017). All about lemongrass oil. https://www.newdirectionsaromatics.com/blog/products/ all-about-lemongrass-oil.html.

[2] Ukpong, I. G., Ettah, H. E., and Eshuong, E. E. (2016). Studies on mosquito repellent activity of cymbopogoncitratus (lemon grass) using human volunteers. International Journal of Research—Granthaalayah, 4(12), 41-47. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.221591.

[3] Joy, P. P., Mathew, S., Skaria, B. P., Mathew, G., Joseph, A., and Sreevidya, P. P. (2006). Lemongrass. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali, Asamannoor, Kerala, India, 1-32.

[4] Rodriques, E. and Carlini, E. A. (2004). Plants used by a Quilombola Group in Brazil with Potential Central Nervous System Effects. Phytotherapy Research, 18, 748-753.

[5] Devi, R. C., Sim, S. M., and Ismail, R. (2011). Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogoncitratus isolated rabbit ileum. J. Smooth Muscle Res., 47(5): 143-156.

[6] Birhanu, N., Yohannes, W., and Chandravanshi, B. S. (2021). Determination of selected major and trace metals in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. SINET Ethiopian Journal of Science, 44(2): 205-214. DOI: 10.4314/sinet.v44i2.7.

[7] Moomaw, A. S. and Maguire, M. E. (2008). The unique nature of Mg2+ channels. Physiology, 23(5): 275-285. http:/doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00019.2008.

[8] Silva, F. D., Santos, R. H. S., Andrade, N. J. D., Barbosa, L. C. A., Casali, V. W. D., Lima, R. R. D. and Passarinho, R. V. D. M. (2005). Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 40(4): 323-328.

[9] He, F. J. and MacGregor, G. A. (2008). Beneficial effects of potassium on human health. Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 725-735, View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar.

[10] Breckle, S. W. (1991). Growth under stress, heavy metals. In: Waisel, Y., Eshel, A., Fafkafi, U. (Eds.), Plant Roots, The Hidden Half. Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp: 351-373.

[11] Zuo, X., Balasubramanian, R., Fu, D. &  Li, H. (2012). Biosorption of copper, zinc and cadmium using sodium hydroxide immersed Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng (lemon grass). Ecological Engineering, 49: 186-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ecoleng.2012.08.027.

[12] Lee, L.Y., Lee, X. J., Chia, P. C., Tan, K. W., and Gan, S. (2014). Utilisation of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) as biosorbent for the sequestration of nickel ions from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamics and mechanism studies. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 45(4): 1764-1772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2014.02.002.

[13] Sobh, M., Moussawi, M.-A., Rammal, W., Hijazi, A., Rammal, H., Reda, M., Toufaily, J., and Hamieh, T. (2014). Removal of lead (II) ions from waste water by using Lebanese Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) Stem as adsorbent. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2(9): 1070-1080.

[14] Hassan, E. (2016). Comparative study on the biosorption of Pb(II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) using Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus): kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics. Chem Int., 2(2): 89-102.

[15] Jha, A. K. and Kumar, U. (2017). Studies on removal of heavy metals by cymbopogon flexuosus. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, IJAEB, 10(1): 89-92. https://doi.org/10.5958/2230-732X.2017.00017.1.

[16] Adepoju-Bello, A. A., Issa, O. A., Oguntibeju, O. O., Ayoola, G. A., and Adejumo, O. O. (2014). Analysis of some selected toxic metals in registered herbal products manufactured in Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotech., 11(26): 6918-6922.

[17] Naithani, V., Pathak, N., and Chaudhary, M. (2010). Estimation of arsenic and mercury in a polyherbal formulation—Septiloc. IJPSDR, 2(1): 78-79.

[18] Saied, S., Zahir, E., and Siddique, A. (2010). Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 32(6): 737.

[19] Celik, U. and Oehlenschlager, J. (2007). High contents of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper in popular fishery products sold in Turkish supermarkets. Food Control, 18, 258-261.

[20] Ray, S. A. and Ray, M. K. (2009). Bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity with special reference to chromium. Al Ameen J Med Sci, 2(2): 57-63.

[21] Mohan, D. and Pittman, C. U. (2007). Arsenic removal from water/waste water using adsorbents—a critical review. J. ha-zard.Mater., 142, 1-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.006.

[22] Timbrell, J. A. (1995). Introduction to toxicology. 2nd Ed; Lead Pollution, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 111-114.

[23] Plum, L. M., Rink, L., and Haase, H. (2010). The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 7(4): 1342-1365.

[24] Ernst, E. (2002).Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines. Trends PharmacolSci, 23(3): 136-139.

[25] Baby, J., Raj, J. S., Biby, E. T., Sankarganesh, P., Jeevitha, M. V., Ajisha, S. U., & Rajan, S. S. (2010). Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4, 939-952.  DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v4i4.62976.

[26] Lakshmi, T., Rajendran, R., and Ezhilarasan, D. (2015). Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis of Heavy Metals in Acacia catechu willd. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research-IJPPR, 7(4), 777-781. Available online on www.ijppr.com.

[27] Hina. B., Rizwani, G. H., and Naseem, S. (2011). Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 24(3): 353-358.

[28] Okpo, S. O. and Otaraku, I. J. (2020). GC-Fid and FT-IR Characterization of Lemongrass Oil Extracted With Soxhlet Extraction Apparatus Using Ethanol as Solvent. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), 10(5), pp. 33-38.

[29] WHO. (1998). Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. WHO Geneva Switzerland. Available at http://whqlibdoc. who.int/publications/1998/9241545100.pdf.

[30] Anal, J. M. (2014). Trace and essential elements analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf samples by graphite furnaceatomic absorption spectroscopy and its health concern. Journal of Toxicology, 2014: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/690758.

[31] Zhu, F., Fan, W., Wang, X., Qu, L., and Yao, S. (2011). Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in china. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(12), 3081-3085. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.09.019.

[32] Lagerwerff, J. V. (1972). Lead, Mercury and Cadmium as environmental contaminants in: Micronutrients in Agriculture. W. L. SoilSci Soc. America. Madison.Wisconsin. Pp. 593-632.

[33] FSAI - Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2009). Mercury, lead, cadmium, tin and arsenic in food. Toxicology factsheet series, issue No. 1.

[34] Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Impact of environmental pollution on health: Balancing risk. British Medical Bulletin, 68(1): 167-182. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032.

[35] Izah, S. C., Chakrabarty, N., and Srivastav, A. L. (2016). Review on Heavy Metal Concentration in Potable Water Sources in Nigeria: Human Health Effects and Mitigating Measures. Exp. Health, 8, 285-304. 

[36] Prashanth, L., Kattapagari, K. K., Chitturi, R. T., Baddam, V. R. R., and Prasad, L. K. (2015). A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. J. NTR Univ. Health Sci., 4, 75-78.

[37] Annan, K., Dickson, R. A., Amponsah, I. K., and Nooni, I. K. (2013). The heavy metal contents of some selected medicinal plants sampled from different geographical locations. Pharmacognosy Research, 5(2), 103-108.

[38] Ashraf, M. W. (2014). Levels of selected heavy metals in varieties of vegetable oils consumed in kingdom of Saudi Arabia and health risk assessment of local population. Journal of chemical society of Pakistan, 36(4), 691-698. Doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106.

Full-Text HTML

Determination of the Metals Contents of Essential Oil from Lemongrass

How to cite this paper: Samson Onoriode Okpo, Ifeanyichukwu Edeh. (2022). Determination of the Metals Contents of Essential Oil from Lemongrass. Engineering Advances2(2), 141-146.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ea.2022.12.001