Relations between Decoding, Fluency, and Comprehension for L2 English Readers in India


Sunaina Shenoy*, Kathryn Overton

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

*Corresponding author: Sunaina Shenoy

Published: September 18,2023


We report on a study that was conducted in an urban city center, Bangalore, India. The participants included 1,052 students from Grades 1, 3 and 5, who came from different home language backgrounds and attended schools where the language of instruction was English. The students’ L2 English reading skills were measured using DIBELS and Easy CBM. The purpose of this study was to examine relations between basic skills, fluency, and comprehension. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), for students in Grade 1, we found reading skills mapped on to three latent factors: “letter sounds”, “letter names” and “fluency and comprehension”. For students in Grade 3, we found reading skills mapped on to two latent factors: “word and passage level fluency and comprehension” and “sentence and retell level fluency and comprehension”. For students in Grade 5, we found reading skills mapped on to two latent factors: “fluency” and “comprehension”. Implications for reading assessment and instruction practices within the Indian context will be discussed.


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How to cite this paper

Relations between Decoding, Fluency, and Comprehension for L2 English Readers in India

How to cite this paper:  Sunaina Shenoy, Kathryn Overton. (2023). Relations between Decoding, Fluency, and Comprehension for L2 English Readers in India. The Educational Review, USA7(8), 1037-1051.