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Etiology, Transmission, Epidemiology, Clinical Spectrum, Diagnosis and Management of Fungal Mastitis in Dairy Animals: A Mini Review

Mahendra Pal

Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, B-103, Sapphire Lifestyle, Gujarat, India.

*Corresponding author: Mahendra Pal

Date: October 26,2023 Hits: 430


Mastitis is a major production disease of dairy animals, which is caused by more than 136 microorganisms. The disease is highly significant due to huge economic losses to the dairy farmers. It is reported in both developing and developed nations of the world. The infection of the mammary gland is more commonly encountered in exotic and cross-bred animals. The incidence of subclinical mastitis seems to be higher than clinical mastitis. There are many species of fungi that are associated with the etiology of mastitis in dairy animals, such as cows, buffaloes, goats, camels, and sheep. Among fungal agents, Candida species are the most frequently isolated from mastitis cases. The extensive, prolonged, and indiscriminate use of antibacterial antibiotics and hydrocortisone in the conventional treatment of mastitis has predisposed dairy animals to mycotic mastitis. Fungal pathogens have the potential to produce both clinical and subclinical mastitis in milch animals. Fungi are widely prevalent in the environment, and hence, unhygienic sheds of animals may provide a source of fungal infection of the mammary gland. The infection may spread through the milker’s hand and milking machine. Clinical signs and symptoms of fungal mastitis resemble bacterial mastitis. Laboratory techniques are required to confirm the diagnosis of the disease. The fungi are easily isolated from the mastitic milk on Sabouraud dextrose agar and Pal sunflower seed medium. Microscopic morphology of fungal isolates can be studied in Narayan stain. Nystatin therapy has shown encouraging results in the management of mastitis cases caused by Candida species. The treatment of mycotic mastitis, mainly due to Cryptococcus neoformans is challenging. The implementation of good hygienic practices during milking, proper sanitation measures in the cow sheds, and immediate cessation of antibacterial antibiotics may help to reduce the prevalence and incidence of fungal mastitis.


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Etiology, Transmission, Epidemiology, Clinical Spectrum, Diagnosis and Management of Fungal Mastitis in Dairy Animals: A Mini Review

How to cite this paper: Mahendra Pal. (2023) Etiology, Transmission, Epidemiology, Clinical Spectrum, Diagnosis and Management of Fungal Mastitis in Dairy Animals: A Mini Review. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture7(3), 424-429.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2023.09.015