Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijcemr.2024.01.002

Reliability, Sex, and Direction Differences in the New Balance Ability Test for Middle-aged and Older People


Yoshinori Nagasawa1,*, Shinichi Demura2, Yoshimasa Matsuura3

1Department of Health and Sports Sciences, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.

2College of Human and Social Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.

3Faculty of Liberal Arts, Sciences and Global Education, Osaka Metropolitan University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

*Corresponding author: Yoshinori Nagasawa

Published: January 30,2024


This study aimed to examine the reliability of a new test that evaluates differences in balance ability, sex, and evaluation parameters when moving in the back/forth or left/right direction, as well as contact times, total contact time, and their relations during an unstable standing posture in middle-aged and older people. The participants were 31 Japanese individuals (17 men: mean age, 61.8 years; standard deviation (SD) = 8.3; 14 women: mean age, 56.9 years; SD = 9.6). They were instructed to maintain a stable standing posture for 1 minute on the plate of the new device without contacting the edge of a contact-sensing plate. This device leans the plate either back/forth or left/right when standing on the plate and can measure times and their time of contact with the plate edge. The test was performed twice with a 1-minute interval after one practice trial in either condition (back/forth or left/right direction). The time per contact (total contact time/contact times) was used as an evaluation parameter. Insignificant differences were found between trials in evaluation parameters, contact times, and total contact time in both back/forth and left/right directions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were ≥0.7 in both directions. A two-way analysis of variance showed insignificant interaction or main effects of sex and direction conditions for the evaluation parameter and the total contact time. Although no significant interaction was found for contact times, a significant main effect was found for sex. The post hoc test showed that men had higher values and larger effect sizes (Cohen’s d back/forth: 1.21, left/right: 1.27) than women in both back/forth and left/right directions. A correlation analysis showed relatively high correlations between back/forth and left/right direction evaluation parameters in both sexes (Men: r = 0.71, Women: r = 0.80). In conclusion, this new balance ability test has a high reliability in middle-aged and older people, and the evaluation parameter does not indicate sex differences or differences in the amount of back/forth and left/right movement. The relations between the parameters of back/forth and left/right directions are high in both sexes.


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How to cite this paper

Reliability, Sex, and Direction Differences in the New Balance Ability Test for Middle-aged and Older People

How to cite this paper: Yoshinori Nagasawa, Shinichi Demura, Yoshimasa Matsuura. (2024) Reliability, Sex, and Direction Differences in the New Balance Ability Test for Middle-aged and Older PeopleInternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Research8(1), 8-16.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijcemr.2024.01.002