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Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.03.009

Climate and Water Resources Variation in Afghanistan and the Need for Urgent Adaptation Measures

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M. Najim Nasimi 1,*, Jay Sagin 2, N.T.S. Wijesekera 3

1 Lecturer, Kabul Polytechnic University, Afghanistan.

2 Professor, Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan.

3 Senior Professor, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

*Corresponding author: M. Najim Nasimi, Kabul Polytechnic University, Afghanistan.

Published: March 5,2020

Abstract

Climate changes due to anthropogenic distortions to the environment are increasing worldwide, and also throughout Afghanistan. Effects on Water resources reflected by the intensification of floods and droughts cause emergency situations in Afghanistan. In this research, we have reviewed the changes of climate factors and their impact on the water resources in Afghanistan. Meteorological data, including temperature, precipitation, streamflow data, glacier monitoring data were collected and used to analyze the changes reflected in precipitation, surface water, glacier melting, and groundwater resource.  Temperatures of winter seasons in one decade starting from 2007 to 2017 had increased from 0.9 ℃ to 2.5 ℃.  The summer season temperature had increased from 0.5 ℃ to 1.2 ℃. These show that the winter periods are getting warmer when compared to the temperature of the summer periods.  Glacier volumes have decreased by 18.53% between 1994 to 2015. Surface runoff in streams have dramatically reduced by 22% when compared with the that observed between 1962 to 2017. It was identified that the streamflow peaks become sharper and reach larger values. Due these floods have a rapid response with a larger destructive power.  The prolonged droughts also show a devastating characteristic.  Due to the changes in the climate groundwater resources are depleting and has been worst hit due to over extractions. The Karez system, which is the local underground water channeling network has been abandoned and dried up all over Afghanistan. Thus, sustainable climate change adaptation programs are urgently required to be developed and implemented in Afghanistan. 

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How to cite this paper

Climate and Water Resources Variation in Afghanistan and the Need for Urgent Adaptation Measures

How to cite this paper: Nasimi, M. N., Sagin, J., Wijesekera, N. T. S. (2020) Climate and Water Resources Variation in Afghanistan and the Need for Urgent Adaptation Measures. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture, 4(1), 49-64.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.03.009