TOTAL VIEWS: 9217

Published: August 11,2020

The aim of this study is to define both the structural constant of all atoms *s*_{0} and the action of *LC* oscillator *A*, as a new concept. The methods of theoretical research are used, and its checking is based on previously measured data. Electromagnetic radiation, which we observe in an area outside of the atom, has its source in the atom. As a model of this source an *LC* oscillator was investigated within the atom. It is determined that the energy of that *LC* oscillator is proportional to its natural frequency. However, the proportionality factor *A*, which is analogous to Planck’s *h*, is not constant, but decreases with the increase in this frequency. Periodic coincidence of two independent phenomena within an atom is condition of the stability of an atom. These two phenomena are, first, circulating the electron around the nucleus, and second, oscillating the electromagnetic energy in the atom. At the integer frequency ratio of these two phenomena, discretization of the atoms state occurs. The structural constant and its unified value is defined; *s*_{0}=8.278691910. All NIST Data, from Hydrogen, _{1}H, to Darmstadtium,_{ 110}Ds, 110 metrics, confirmed this value. This approach, besides the atomic shell, includes its nucleus. It is shown that with help of structural constant *s*_{0}, as well with help of the other five known constants (*c*, *m*_{0}, *e*, *m, m*_{p}), nine existing constants become redundant; *i.e.*, fine structure constant *a* , von Klitzing constant *R*_{K}, Planck’s *h*, ratio *e/h*, Josephson constant *K*_{J}, Rydberg constant *R*_{¥}, Bohr radius *a*_{0}, Bohr magneton *m*_{B}, and nuclear magneton *m*_{N}. All relevant physical quantities are also given in a form suitable for use in Discrete Physics. All relations in Discrete Physics are as clear as in Classical Physics.

[1] Cole J. M., Behm K.T., Blackburn T. G., Wood J. C., Baird C. D., Duff M. J., Harvey C., Ilderton A., Joglekar A. S. , Krushelnik K., Kuschel S., Marklund M., McKenna P., Murphy C. D., Poder K., Ridgers C. P., Samarin G. M., Sarri G., Symes D. R., Thomas A. G. R., Warwick J., Zepf M., Najmudin Z. and Mangles S. P. D. (2018). Experimental evidence of radiation reaction in the collision of a high-intensity laser pulse with a laser-wakefield accelerated electron beam. arXiv:1707.06821v2, 1.

[2] Schpolski E. W. (1979). Atomic physics I (Atomphysik I). 15th Newly Revised Edition, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin.

[3] Supek I. (1974). Theoretical physics and structure of matter I (Teorijska fizika i struktura materije I), 4th Edition, Školskaknjiga, Zagreb.

[4] Planck M. (1944). Paths to physical knowledge (Wege zur Physikalische Erkenntnis), 4th Edition, Verlag von S. Hirzel in Leipzig.

[5] Perkovac M. (2002). Quantization in Classical Electrodynamics. Physics Essays, 15, 41-60.

[6] Perkovac M. (2003). Absorption and Emission of Radiation by an Atomic Oscillator. Physics Essays, 16, 162-173.

[7] Jackson J. D. (1998). Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto.

[8] Giancoli D. C. (1988). Physics for scientists and engineers, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, London, Sydney, Toronto, Mexico, New Delhi, Tokyo, Simon & Schuster Asia, Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro.

[9] NIST database. (2020). NIST Atomic Spectra Database Ionization Energies Form. https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/ion Energy.html.

[10] Kurnik Z. (2007). Diophantine Equations (Diofantske jednadžbe), Hrvatsko matematičko društvo, Zagreb.

[11] Surutka J. (1971). Electromagnetics (Elektromagnetika), 3rd Edition, Građevins kaknjiga, Beograd.

[12] Perkovac M. (2014). Maxwell’s Equations as the Basis for Model of Atoms, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2, 235-251.

[13] Perkovac M. (2010). Statistical test of Duane-Hunt’s law and its comparison with an alternative law.arXiv:1010.6083, 2.

[14] Duane W. and Hunt F. L. (1915). On X-Ray Wave-Lengths, Phys. Rev. 6, 166-172.

[15] Hänsel H., Neumann W. (1995). Physics; Atoms-Atomic nuclei-Elementary particles (Physik; Atome-Atomkerne-Elementarteilchen). Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg⠂Berlin⠂Oxford.

[16] Perkovac M. (2013). Model of an Atom by Analogy with the Transmission Line. Journal of Modern Physics, 4, 899-903.

[17] Perkovac M. (2014). Determination of the Structural Constant of the Atom. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2, 11-21.

[18] Haznadar Z., Štih Ž. (1997). Electromagnetism (Elektromagnetizam), Školska knjiga, Zagreb.

[19] Kulenkampff H. (1926). Continuous X-ray Spectrum (Das Kontinuirliche Röntgenspektrum), In: Bothe W. at. al., Ed., Quanten. Handbuch der Physik, vol. 23, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 433-476.

[20] Perkovac M. (2018). Measurement of Type of Substance Based on Protons, Neutrons and Electrons in the Substance. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 4(4), 1-8.

Electromagnetic Oscillator Action as an Introduction to Discrete Physics

**How to cite this paper:** Milan Perkovac. (2020) Electromagnetic Oscillator Action as an Introduction to Discrete Physics. *Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation*, **4**(**3**), 64-82.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/jamc.2020.09.003