Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijcemr.2022.01.006

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Male Workers in a Selected Area of Dhaka City


Jasim Uddin1, A. S. M. Giasuddin2,3,*, M. I. Khalil4, M. Kamrujjaman4

1Department of Physiotherapy, State College of Health Sciences, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

2Medical research Unit (MRU), Medical College for Women & Hospital (MCW&H), Medical & Health Welfare Trust (MHWT), Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh.

3Impulse Hospital, ImHS&RCLtd, 304/E, Tejgaon Industrial Area, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh.

4Department of Physiotherapy, State College of Health Sciences, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

*Corresponding author:  A. S. M. Giasuddin

Published: December 14,2021


Background: Wide range of activities involved in municipal solid waste (MSW) management may lead to development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in MSW disposal male workers. Not much studies were done about the prevalence and associated factors of MSDs in MSW disposal male workers in Bangladesh; Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of (MSDs) among MSW disposal male workers in a selected area of Dhaka City, Bangladesh; Methodology: A total of 102 MSW disposal male workers (n = 102) were included in the study by convenient sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the information/data by face to face interview for 6 months (January to June 2021) from the selected area of Dhaka city. Data were numerically coded and captured in Excel using SPSS Software Programme-Version 22 and subjected to cross sectional analyses by Chi-squired (X) tests; Results: Socio-demographic, ergonomic, MSDs/pain, work/career, posture and treatment seeking pattern related information were obtained and recorded of the 102 respondents (age range: 18-67 years, majority age range: 18-27 years ie.59/57.8%, married: 75/73.5%, unmarried: 27/26.5%, majority: n=68/66.7% had normal BMI/18.5-24.9, career period: 1-30 years and majority: n=79/78.4% were illiterate). Types of work varied as collection, transfer and two or more with postures as standing (N=87, 85.3%), sitting (n=2, 2.0%), bending (n=101, 99.0%) and all types (n=1, 1.0%) indicating multiple working postures for individuals. MSDs were present in 85 (83.3%) and absent in 17 (16.7%) respondents. Pattern of pain varied as temporary (n=74, 88.1%), continuous (n=3, 3.6%) and on movement (n=39, 46.4%). About severity of pain, 1% (n=1) had mild, 73% (n=62) had moderate and 26% (n=22) had severe type of pain and 16.7% (n=17) had no response to pain. Location of pain (n=85) were in neck (54.1%, n= 46), shoulder (80.0%, n=68), elbow joint (8.2%, n=7), wrist joint (7.1%, n=6), upper back pain (15.3%, n=13), lower back pain (90.6%, n=77), knee joint (23.5%, n=20) and ankle joint (2.4%, n=2) indicating that each of them had pain in multiple locations. Of them (n=85, 83.3%), 50 (49%) received treatment from doctors (n=47, 94%), physiotherapists (n=1, 2%), others (n=2, 4%) and 35 (34.3%) did not receive treatment. Among the 50 treated patients, condition improved in 17 (16.7%), worsened in 1 (1.0%) and unchanged in 32 (31.4%) of them. Statistical analyses indicated that age (p=0.167), BMI (p=0.155), education level (p=0.329) and career period (p=0.293) were not significantly associated with MSDs in our respondents; Conclusions: An integrated health education consisting of ergonomics and healthy work habits needs to be incorporated in a pre-health screening programme. Also, a routine workplace health promotion model needs to be activated for these workers. Further analytical and interventional studies are warranted involving more respondents from wider areas of Bangladesh including Dhaka city to evaluate the effectiveness of information related intervention.


[1] Rushton, L. (2003). Health hazards and waste management. British Medical Bulletin, 68(1): 183-197.

[2] Jayakrishnan, T., Jeeja, M. C., Bhaskar, R. (2013). Occupational health problems of municipal solid waste management workers in India. International Journal of Environmental Health England, 2: 42. DOI: 10.4203/2277-9183.122430.   

[3] Kuijer, P., Sluiter, J., Frings-Dresen, M. (2010). Health and safety in waste collection: towards evidence-based worker health surveillance. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53: 1040-1064.

[4] Cointreau-Levine, S. (2006). Occupational and environmental health issues of solid waste management-special emphasis on middle and lower-income countries; Washington DC: World Bank Group; 1-48. 

[5] Mohammed, S., Patel, A. L. (2014). Possible health danger associated with garbage/refuse collectors. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8(9): 22-30. 

[6] Sukadarin, E. H., Deros, B. M., Ghani, J. A., Nawi, N. S. M., Ismail, A. R. (2016). Postural assessment in pen-and-paper-based observational methods and their associated health effects: a review. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 22(3): 389-398. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2016.1156924. 

[7] Meksawi, S., Tangtrakulwanich, B., Chongsuvivatwong, V. (2012). Musculoskeletal problems and ergonomic risk assessment in rubber tappers: A Community-based study in Southern Thailand. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 42(1): 129-135.

[8] Mehrdad, R., Majlessi-Nasr, M., Aminian, O., Sharifian, S. A., Malekahmadi, F. (2008). Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers. Acta Medica Iranica, 46: 233-238. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229001733. 

[9] Wouters, I. M., Hilhorst, S. K. M., Kleppe, P., Doekes, G., Douwes, J., Peretz, C., Heederik, D. (2002). Upper Airway Inflammation and Respiratory Symptoms in Domestic Waste Collectors. Occupational Environment Medicine, 59(2): 106-112. https://ome.bmj.com/doi:10.1136/ome.59.2.106.  

[10] Dorevitch, S., Marder, D. (2001). Occupational hazards of municipal solid waste workers. Occupational Medicine, 16: 125-133. 

[11] Rogers, B. (2001). Municipal healthcare workers: Work-related health hazards. Occupational Medicine, 16: 143-161.

[12] Leijon, M., Hensing, G., Alexanderson, K. (1998). Gender trends in sick-listing with musculoskeletal symptoms in a Swedish county during a period of rapid increase in sickness absence. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 26: 204-213.

[13] Karwowski, W., Marras, W. S. (2003). Occupational Ergonomics: Principles of Work Design, Florida: CRC Press, p. 24. eBook ISBN9780429211546.   

[14] Occupational Health and Safety Act. (2012). Section 43. Available from: www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/ elaws_statutes_97w16_e.htm.

[15] Takala, J. (2011). OH & S Forum 2011/ Conference on EU Strategies and Tools in Occupational Safety and Health Forum by European Agency for Safety and Health at Work; pp. 77-65. Available from: http://www.osha.europa.eu. 

[16] Yasobant, S., Rajkumar, P. (2014). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among health care professionals: A cross-sectional assessment of risk factors in a tertiary hospital, India. Indian Journal of Occupational Environment Medicine, 18: 75-81.

[17] Porta, D., Milani, S., Lazzarino, A. I., Perucci, C. A., Forastiere, F. (2012). Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste. Environmental Health, 8: 60. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40766335/doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-8-60. 

[18] Abou-ElWafa, H. S., El-Bestar, S. F., El-Gilany, A.-H., El-Toraby, EEl-S. A. (2012). Musculoskeletal disorders among munic-ipal solid waste collectors in Mansoura, Egypt: A cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal Open, 2(5): e001338. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230850535/doi:10.1136/bmlopen-2012-001338. 

[19] Commissioner, M. (2012). Administration report of municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai: City-suburbs and extended suburb. Mumbai: Municipal Printing Press; pp. 449-456.

[20] Schibye, B., Sogaard, K., Martinsen, D., Klausen, K. (2001). Mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling of two-wheeled waste containers compared with lifting and carrying of bags and bins. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 16(7): 549-559. Available from: https://www.clinbiomech.com/doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00039-0.

[21] Poulsen, O. M., Breum, N. O., Ebbehøj, N., Hansen, A. M., Ivens, U. I., Lelieveld, D. V., et al. (1995). Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes. Science of the Total Environment, 170(1-2): 1-19. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/doi:10.1016/0048/9697(95)04524-5. 

[22] Gizaw, Z., Gebrehiwot, M., Teka, Z., Molla, M. (2014). Assessment of occupational injury and associated factors among municipal solid waste management workers in Gondar town and Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 5(9): 181-192. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.14303/jmms.2014.103.   

[23] Bell, M. L., Samet, J. M., Frumkin, H. (2010). Environmental health: from global to local, Second Edition; Jossey-Bass: USA; pp. 374-587. 

[24] Athanasiou, M., Makrynos, G., Dounias, G. (2010). Respiratory health of municipal solid waste workers. Occupational Medicine, 60: 618-623.  

[25] London, L., Tangwa, G., Matchaba-Hove, R., Mkhize, N. J., Nyika, A., Westerholm, et al. (2014). Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context. Biomedical Central Medical Ethics, 15: 48. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-15-48. 

[26] Thirarattanasunthon, P., Siriwong, W., Robson, M., Borjon, M. (2012). Health risk reduction behaviors model for scavengers exposed to solid waste in municipal dump sites in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Risk Management of Health Policy, 5: 97-104. Available from: https://doi:10.2147/RMHP.S30707. Corpus ID:6097568.

[27] Bogale, D., Kumie, A., Tefera, W. (2014). Assessment of occupational injuries among Addis Ababa city municipal solid waste collectors: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 14: 169. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-169. 

[28] Kuijer, P. P. F. M., Frings-Dresen, M. H. W. (2004). World at work: Refuse collectors. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61(3): 282-286. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/pulication/7254536/Doi:10.1136/oem.2002.001172.    

[29] Heldal, K. K., Straumfors, A., Thorn, J., Djupesland, P., Wouters, I., Eduare, W., Halstensen, T. S. (2003). Upper Airway Inflammation in Waste Handlers Exposed to Bioaerosols. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(6): 444-450. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10739877/Doi:10.1136/oem.60.6.444.  

[30] WMA. (2013). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles of Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Journal of American Medical Association, 310 (20): 2191-2194. Available from: https://www.jamanetwork.com/ journals/jama/fullarticle/1760318. 

[31] Aderaw, Z., Engdaw, D., Tadesse, T. (2011). Determinants of occupational injury: a case control study among textile factory workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Tropical Medicine (Article ID 657275). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/657275. Available from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2011/657275.         

[32] Yiha, O., Kumie, A. (2010). Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural Development S.C, Afar Regional State. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 24(3): 167-174. 

[33] Olorunnishola, O. A., Taylor, A. K., Byrd, L. (2010). Occupational injuries and illnesses in the solid waste industry: a call for action; New Solutions. A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 20(2): 211-223. https://www.doi:10.2190/NS.20.2.f.    

[34] Endreddy, M. R., Sandul, Y. (2015). Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(4): 519-524.

[35] Pintakham, K., Siriwrong, W. (2016). Prevalence and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Journal of Health Research, 30(3): 207-213.

[36] Robazzi, M. L. C. C., Moriya, T. M., Favero, M. (1997). Garbage collectors: occupational accidents and coefficients of frequency and severity per accident. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 4(1): 91-96.

[37] Ekpenyong, C. E., Inyang, C. U. (2014). Associations between worker characteristics, workplace factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A cross-sectional study of male construction workers in Nigeria. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 20(3): 447-462. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2014.11077057. 

[38] Zakaria, J., Sukadarin, E. H., Omar, F. A. C., Salleh, N. F. M. (2017). Musculoskeletal disorder among municipal solid waste collectors. Asia Pacific Environmental and Occupational Health Journal, 3(1): 28-32.

[39] Decharat, S. (2017). Prevalence of adverse Health Effects among municipal solid waste workers, Southern Thailand. International Journal of occupational Hygiene, 9(4): 186-191.

[40] Eskezia, D., Alemu, A. Z., Ahmed, K. Y., Tadese, F. (2016). Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia. BioMedical Central Public Health, 16: 862. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/306425188/doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3483-1.

How to cite this paper

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Male Workers in a Selected Area of Dhaka City

How to cite this paper: Jasim Uddin, A. S. M. Giasuddin, M. I. Khalil, M. Kamrujjaman. (2022) Prevalence and Associated Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Male Workers in a Selected Area of Dhaka CityInternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Research6(1), 31-39.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijcemr.2022.01.006