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Morphological, Pathogenic, and Molecular Characterization of Phytophthora palmivora Isolates Causing Black Pod Disease on Cocoa in Peninsular Malaysia

Wael Alsultan1,2,*, Wong Mui Yun1,2, Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad1, Ganesan Vadamalai1,2, Ahmad Khairulmazmi1,2, Abdullah M. Al-Sadi3, Osamah Rashed1, Abbas Nasehi1, Abdel Razzaq Al-Tawaha4

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

2Institute of Plantation Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400, Malaysia.

3Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 34, Alkhoud 123, Muscat, Oman.

4Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: Wael Alsultan

Date: April 27,2022 Hits: 1794


Black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora causes major losses on cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Malaysia and worldwide. In this study, morphological and molecular characterization as well as pathogenicity of 14 isolates of P. palmivora, obtained from main cocoa producing states of Peninsular Malaysia including Perak and Pahang, were determined. In general, the results indicated that P. palmivora isolates were divided into two groups based on their geographical origins of the isolates. According to morphological characteristics, although some overlap was observed among the isolates obtained from the two states, isolates from Pahang grew faster on different agar media, and various shapes of sporangia including, globose, limoniform, ovoid and sporangia with two papilla were recorded for these isolates. Pathogenicity tests indicated that the isolates obtained from Pahang are more aggressive compared to the isolates from Perak. Phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of the ITS, EF-1α, and COX1 indicated that all 14 isolates belonged to P. palmivora with no difference among the isolates. These results suggest that morphological and pathogenic diversity of Malaysian isolates of P. palmivora is related to their geographical origins.


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Morphological, Pathogenic, and Molecular Characterization of Phytophthora palmivora Isolates Causing Black Pod Disease on Cocoa in Peninsular Malaysia

How to cite this paper: Wael Alsultan, Wong Mui Yun, Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad, Ganesan Vadamalai, Ahmad Khairulmazmi, Abdullah M. Al-Sadi, Osamah Rashed, Abbas Nasehi, Abdel Razzaq Al-Tawaha. (2022) Morphological, Pathogenic, and Molecular Characterization of Phytophthora palmivora Isolates Causing Black Pod Disease on Cocoa in Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture6(2), 135-148.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2022.06.002